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Citations: MLA  --  Writing a Works Cited Page
Definition: An alphabetized list of works cited, which appears at the end of your research paper,
                    that gives publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper.

 

Instructions: Click on a link below for guidelines to your Works cited entry.
 Biography  or link directly to:  or link directly to:  or link directly to:
 College and Career Book Part of Web site DVD or Video
 Encyclopedias Encyclopedia Article TV or Radio Program
 Literature Newspaper Article Newspaper Article on Web site
 Magazines, etc.  Magazine Article Online eBook  
 Newspapers Journal Article Part of Online Book Other:
 Science Pamphlet Image From Web site Interviews
 Social Science   E-mail, personal Lecture/Speech
 
Link to Information for citing uncommon types of entries 

MLA Citation Makers - Enter the source information and these sites will automaticlly create MLA citations for you
 
General Works Cited information

 

  • Include a citation for every in-text reference (parenthetical notation) used in the body of the project
  • You will have entries in your working bibliography that you end up not referring to in your project, and they will be left out of the Works Cited
  • The Works Cited begins on a new page, with the title centered
  • The entire Works Cited is double spaced, with no additional spaces between entries
  • If an entry runs more than one line, use the hanging indent format where the entry begins at the margin and each line after the first is indented one-half inch
  • The entire Works Cited is alphabetized by the main entry           
  • When no author is listed, the main entry (the first thing listed) is the title, ignoring 'A,' 'An' and 'The.' All entries are alphabetized together in the same list

Guidelines for the Dist. 214 Online Subscription Databases and Reference Materials

Find MLA citation examples on the 214 Library Resources page:
For citation entries from articles in subscription databases and virtual reference books, use the links next to the headings on the 214 Library Resources page.

The example below shows where to find this information on the page:

MLA_examples
 
Click here to visit the 214 Library Resources page.

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Guidelines for Print Resources
Book
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First. Book Title. City: Publisher, Copyright date. Print.
   
Sample citation: one author
Paterson, James. Maximum Ride: The Angel Experiment. New York: Little, Brown and Co., 2005. Print.
   
Sample citation: two authors
O'Neill, Nena, and George O'Neill. Finding Security in a Changing World. New York: Follett, 1993. Print.
   
What to include:

article in book with editor
Author Last Name, First. "Title of Article." Title of Book. Editors. City: Publisher, Year. Page Numbers. Print.
   
Sample citation:
article in book with editor
Nord, Warren A. "Public Schools Should Teach Religious Studies." Education in America: Opposing Viewpoints. Ed. David L. Bender and Bruno Leone. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000. 189-96. Print.


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Encyclopedia Article
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Title of Encyclopedia. Edition (if available). Copyright. date ed. Print.
   
Sample Citation:
Vinetz, Joseph M. "Malaria." World Book Encyclopedia. 2005 ed. Print.
   
Less Familiar Encyclopedia
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Title of Encyclopedia. Editor. Number of volumes. City: Publisher, Copyright date. Print.
   
Sample Citation:

"Newton, Isaac ." The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists. Ed. Roy Paker and Marilyn Ogilvie. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Newspaper Article
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Title of Newspaper [City needed, if not in title] Publishing date, edition (if given, abbreviate ed), section letter or number: page. (if more than one page, add plus (+) sign. Print.
   
Sample Citation:
Holmes, Erin. "Dueling Web Sites Debate Books." Daily Herald [Chicago] 5 Oct. 2006, Northwest Focus ed. sec. 1: 1+. Print.


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Magazine Article
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Magazine Title Copyright date: pages. Print. 
   
Sample Citation:
Gibbs, Nancy, and Mike Allen. "A Time to Regroup." Time 7 Nov. 2005: 24-31. Print.


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Professional Journal Article
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Journal Title Volume.Issue (Copyright year): pages. Print.
   
Sample Citation:
Wood, Michael. "Broken Dates: Fiction and the Century." Kenyon Review 22.3 (2000): 50-64. Print.


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Pamphlet
 
What to include:
Author or publishing Organization. Pamphlet Title. City of publication: Publisher, Date. Print.
   
Sample Citation:
Triad High School Library Media Center. Policies and Services. Troy: 2007. Print.
   
Pamphlet from Government Printing Office
What to include:
United States. Agency name. Pamphlet Title. Washington: Government Printing Office (GPO), Date. Print.
   
Sample Citation:
United States. Social Security Administration. Your Social Security Number. Washington: GPO, 1993. Print.
 

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Guidelines for Online Resources
 
Note: URL addresses are optional, but your teacher may require you to add it at the end of the citation,
after date of access, enclosed in <angle brackets>.

 
 
Part of a Web Site
 
What to include:
Author/Editor Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title/Page Name." Name of Web Site. Date of publication on Web site or latest revision date. Name of Sponsoring Organization. Web. Date of access.
   
Sample Citation:
"Timeline: The Life and Death of Jesse James, 1820-1865." Jesse James. 2006. American Experience. PBS Online. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.
Professional Journal Article Online
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Magazine Title Vol. number: Issue (Copyright date): pages. Name of Web Site. Date of publication on Web site or latest revision date. Name of Sponsoring Organization. Web. Date of access. 
   
Sample Citation:
Stern, Peter and John Travis. "Of Bytes and Brains." Science 314: 5796 (2006): 75. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.
Newspaper Article Online
What to include:
Author Last Name, First (if available). "Article Title." Title of Newspaper Copyright/Publishing date. Web. Date of access.
   
Sample Citation:
Mason, Jeff. "UN panel issues stark climate change warning." Washington Post 6 April 2007. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.
Online eBook
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First. "Article Title." Book Title. City: Publisher, Copyright date. Name of Web Site. Web. Date of access. 
   
Sample Citation:
Hood, Roger D. "Abolition and Retention: A Regonal Analysis." The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Google Books. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.
Part of an Online eBook
 
What to include:
Author Last Name, First. "Article Title." Book Title. by Book Author. City: Publisher, Copyright date. Name of Web Site. City: Publisher, Copyright date. Web. Date of access.
   
Sample Citation:
Reiman, Jeffrey. "Why the Death Penalty Should be Abolished in America." The Death Penalty: For and Against. by Louis P. Pojman and Jeffery Rieman. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. Google Books. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.
Image from Web Site
 
What to include:
Photographer Last Name, First (if available). Image Title. Image. Copyright date. "Title of Web Page." Title of Web Site. Name of Sponsoring Organization. Date of publication on Web site or latest revision date. Web. Date of access.
   
Sample Citation:

Wildcat. Image. 18 Sept. 2002. "Hearing From God." Angus's Personal Website. Angus Cook. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.

   
Sample Citation:

Escher, M.C. Mobius Parade of Ants. Image. 29 Sept. 2006. "The Mobius Strip." Department of Mathematics. Bellevue Community College. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.


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E-mail, Personal
 
What to include:
Last Name, First of the writer. "Title of message from subject line." Description of message including the recipient. Date of message. E-mail.
   
Sample Citation:
Kellner, Steve. "Information literacy." Message to the author. 25 Mar. 2007. E-mail.
 

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Guidelines for Media Resources

DVD or Videotape
 
 What to include:
Title. Names, such as director (Dir.) writer (Screenplay by) Performers (Perf.). Original release date. Distributor, Year of media release. Media type.
   
 Sample Citation:
 High Fidelity. Dir. Stephen Frears.  Perf. John Cusack, Iben Hjejle, Jack Black, and Todd Louiso. 2000. Walt Disney Video, 2001. Videocassette.


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Television or Radio Program
What to include:
"Title of Segment." Names, such as director (Dir.) writer (By) Performers (Perf.) host (Host). Title of Show. Network, Call letters of Local Station, City, Date of broadcast. Medium.
   
Sample Citation:
"Yes...But is it Art?" Narr. Morley Safer. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York, 19 Sept. 1999. Television.

 

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Sound Recording
 
What to include:
Last Name, First of person being emphasized, such as composer (Comp.) conductor (Cond.) or performer (Perf.). Title of Recording. Artists. Manufacturer, Copyright date. Recording type.
   
Sample Citation:
Verdi, Guiseppe. "O Patria Mia." Aida Highlights. Cond. Erich Leinsdorf. Perf. Leontyne Price, Grace Bumbry, Placido Domingo, and Sherrill Milnes. London Symphony Orchestra. RCA, 1970. MP3 file.
Personal or Telephone Interview of an Individual
What to include:
Last Name, First of person interviewed. Type of interview (Personal, Telephone, email). Date of interview.
   
Sample Citation:
Schuler, David. Personal interview. 6 Oct. 2006.
Lecture or Speech by an Individual
What to include:
Last Name, First of person speaking. "Title of Presentation." Sponsoring Organization. Location. Date of presentation. Descriptive label.
   
Sample Citation:
Meyer, Lesa. "China During the 1700s." Rolling Meadows High School. Rolling Meadows, IL. 18 Sept. 2008. Lecture.

Information for Uncommon Types of Entries

 
2 or 3 authors more than one book by the same author
no author, but there is an editor more than one city listed under the publisher
2 or 3 editors book lists an edition number
more than 3 authors or editors book is a part of a multi-volume set
no author listed, but a company is abbreviations for months
no author listed at all  

 

What if the book or article has 2 or 3 authors?
     You would use the author listed first as the main entry, last name first. Then add the additional author(s) listed with first name followed by last name in the order given in the book, with commas between and the word 'and' before the last one.
Example: 
     Smith, John, and Sue Miller.
     Smith, John, Sue Miller, and Tom Jones.

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What if the book has no author, but there is an editor?
     You would list the editor as the main entry instead of the author, followed by 'ed.'

Example:
     Smith, John, ed.
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What if there are 2 or 3 editors?
     You would use the first editor listed as the main entry, followed by the additional names in the order given in the book, first name followed by last name, and 'eds.' after all.

 Example: 
     Smith, John, Sue Miller, and Tom Jones, eds.
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What if there are more than 3 authors or editors?
     You would use the first author or editor listed as the main entry, followed by the words 'et al.'

Example: 
     Smith, John, et. al. [3 or more authors]
     Smith, John, et. al., eds. [3 or more editors]
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What if no specific author is listed, but a company is?
     You would use the Company's name as the main entry.
Example: American Medical Association.           

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What if no author is listed at all?              
     You would use the title of the book or article as the main entry, where the author would normally be. Omit 'A,' 'An,' and 'The' at the beginning of the title.   The entry would be arranged alphabetically with all the other citations.    [Note: Do not list 'Anonymous' as the author.]
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What if the Works Cited has more than one book by the same author?
     You would list two of them alphabetically by the title. The first book would be entered as ususal. For the second book, the author's name would be left out, with 3 hyphens instead, followed by a period. The name should be repeated in full if it is part of a different authorship, such as a book co-authored.

  Example: 
     Smith, John. Book Title 1 Alphabetically. City: Publisher, Date.
     ---. Second Book Title Alphabetically. City: Publisher, Date.
     Smith, John, and Sue Miller. Book Title. City: Publisher, Date. [alphabetized after those with Smith as the only author]
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What if there is more than one city listed under the publisher?         
     You would use the first one listed.
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What if the book lists an edition number?              
     You would list the edition information after the title, or, if an editor appears after the title, after the editor's name.   Use an abbreviation of the wording on the title page of the book, as shown below.
4th ed.
for Fourth edition
Rev. ed.
for Revised edition
Abr. ed.
for Abridged edition
Example: 
     Smith, John. Book Title. 4th ed. City: Publisher, Date.
 

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What if the book is a part of a multi-volume set?
     You would list the volume number of the volume you used after the title or, if an editor appears after the title, after the editor's name.

  Example: 
        
Author last, First. Book Title. Vol. 3. City: Publisher, Date.
         Author last, First. Book Title. Ed. Vol. 3. City: Publisher, Date.

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What abbreviations are used for the names of months?
[Remember that the day is listed before the month. Example: 12 Nov 2006.]
Jan. Feb. Mar.
Apr. May June
July Aug. Sept.
Oct. Nov. Dec.


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Note: These pages reflect the 2009 7th edition of the MLA Handbook.


      Last updated 2012 by District 214 staff
 
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Writing an In-text (Parenthetical) Citation
Definition: An in-text, or parenthetical, citation is put in the body of your paper to refer to one of the sources listed in your Works Cited.


Guidelines: When do I need to include an in-text citation?

What to include: In parentheses, place the author's last name followed by one space and the page number, and a period at the end.

Example (see more examples below):   
      (Friedman 3).
Examples: Most Common Types of Entries
 
No author listed
      Use the first word or two of the title in quotation marks.
Example:   
      Many Chinese families abandon their baby girls, hoping to have boy babies in the future ("Missing Girls" 5).
 
Web site without page numbers
      MLA format specifies using the paragraph numbers, if given. Most Web site do not have them.
      Until there is a uniform way to handle this, most teachers request using the notation 'n. pag.' for 'no pagination.'
Example:
      "This Web site has no paragraph numbers listed" (Author n. pag.).
 
Two or more sources with the same author
      The in-text citation would include the author's last name, the first word or two of the title and the page number.
Examples:
      journal article       (Smith, "Common Errors" 7).
      book                     (Smith, Library Fun 227). 
 
Two or more authors with the same last name
      If the authors have different first names but the same last name, the reference would include the first initial of the first name with the last       name (J. Smith 23).
      If the first initials are the same, you would use the first names (Jonathan Smith 23).
 

 

   

 

Examples: Less Common Types of Entries

 

note: the following in-text (parenthetical) reference examples do not refer to real sources.


 

 

Same idea from more than one source   Quote is in the middle of one of my sentences
My own idea, but also found in an article   Quote already has quotation marks in it
One person is quoted in a source written by someone else   Long quote
Authors with the same last name   Quote poetry
Quote is on more than one page   Long poem or has unique spacing
Part of a chart   Author's name stated in my text
Part of a quote   Title stated in my text
Quote dialogue from a play   Author and title stated in my text
Web site has no page numbers   Source stated in my text

 

 

What if I’m paraphrasing information when I’ve found the same ideas in more than one source?              
      Your reference should mention each source.  This shows the reader that you have done thorough research on the topic.
Example:
      Researchers have found that high school students believe their skills in doing research are better than they actually are (Smith 34; Jones       567)
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What if I’m talking about my own idea, but find the same idea in an article?
      Make a reference to the work of the other person, using the tem 'see also.'  Otherwise the reader may think you have plagiarized that             person's work.
Example:
      My experience with students has led me to conclude that the lack of ability to create a visual image as they read greatly hinders reading       comprehension (see also Jones 65).
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What if I want to use information from a person, but I found it quoted in a source written by someone else?              
      You would include the information, with the reference showing the source it was originally from and also where you read it ('cited in').
Example:
      Research done by John Smith found that 46% of high school students are not effective at doing online research (Smith, cited in Miller             789).
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What if there are more than one intext references to authors with the same last name?
      If the authors have different first names but the same last name, the reference would include the first initial of the first name with the last       name (J. Smith 23).
      If the first initials are the same, you would use the first names (Jonathan Smith 23).
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What if the quote is printed on more than one page of the book or article?
      You would list the entire page number of each page with a hyphen between (Smith 396-401).
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What if a chart is good, but I only want to use part of the information?
      You still include reference information, but indicate that you have adapted it.
Example:
Year
Male
Female
Total
2004
12
15
27
2005
16
21
 37

Fig. 1 adapted from Smith, John. "Article title."
Magazine name. Date: page.

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What if a quote is good, but I want to leave out part of it?
      You would quote as you normally would, but use 3 spaced periods, called ellipsis points, to show that a part was omitted.
Example:
      "You would quote as you normally would, but use 3 spaced periods . . . to show that a part was omitted" (Smith 45).
      "You would quote as you normally would, but use 3 spaced periods . . ." (Smith 45).
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What if the end of the quote is in the middle of one of my sentences?
      You would put the reference information at the end of the quote, even if it is the middle of the sentence.
Example:
      "You would put the reference in the middle" (Jones 3), if the quote ends there.
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What if the material I'm quoting already has quotation marks in it?
      You would put the quote you're using in quotation marks and change to single quotation marks for the part that was quoted within that             larger quote.
Example:
      "You would put quotation marks around the quote you are using, and 'use single quotation marks, the librarian said, around quotations      within your quote' " (Smith 678).  [note the single and double quotation marks together at the end]
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What if the quote is long?
      If the quote is 4 lines or longer, you would indent the entire quote one inch (10 spaces), double space it, and use no quotation marks. In       most cases a quote like that would be introduced with a colon.              
Example:
      According to John Smith, an MLA expert, a long quote is usually introduced in this way:
A long quote begins on a new line and is indented one inch, or 10 spaces.  The entire quote is double spaced. There are no extra indentations, and quotation marks are left off.   If the quote includes 2 paragraphs, each is indented an additional 3 spaces.  The reference information comes at the end of the quote, just as it would in a shorter quote.  It includes the last name of the author and the page number. (Smith 5)
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What if I need to quote poetry?
      You would incorporate the quote into your text, enclosing it in quotations marks. Use a slash ( / ) to indicate where each new line began.
Example:
      Some poems are memorized by most children. "Mary had a little lamb / Its fleece was white as snow" (author page).
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What if the poem is long or has unique spacing?
      If the poem you quote is 4 lines or more in length, begin it on a new line, indent one inch (10 spaces), double space it, and omit the quotation marks.
      The reference comes immediately after the last poem line.
Example:
      E. E. Cummings often uses interesting spacing:

          It's
          spring
          and
                  the
                        goat-footed
          balloon-Man         whistles
          far
          and
          wee (16-24).

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What if I need to quote dialogue from a play?
      Go to a new line, indent one inch (10 spaces), double space, and begin each new dialogue line with the character's name, all in capitals       letters, followed by a period and the dialogue. If one person's words continue to a second line, indent that line an additional 3 spaces.             The reference appears at the end of the last line of the quote.

      Dialogue from a play would appear as follows:
      TEACHER. Each character's name is in capitals followed by a period and then what was said.
     
      LIBRARIAN. If what the character said is long enough that the dialogue continues to more than one
      line, each additional line is indented an additional 3 spaces, which is 1/4 inch (Smith 34).

What if a Web site has no page numbers?              
      MLA format specifies using the paragraph numbers, if given. Most Web site do not have them.
     
      Until there is a uniform way to handle this, most teachers request using the notation 'n. pag.' for 'no pagination.'
Example:
      "This Web site has no paragraph numbers listed" (Author n. pag.)
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What if the author's name is already stated in my text?
     Since the author Harvey Teacher's  name is already stated in the text of the paper, it is omitted from the in-text citation and only the
     page number or paragraph is used (39).
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What if the title of the article is staed in the text of my paper?
     Since only the title "How to Write an In-text Citation" is given, and the Works Cited is organized by the author, both the author's last
     name and the page number are included in the in-text citation (Smith 56).
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What if both the author and the article title are listed in the text of my paper?
     The article "How to Write an In-text Citation," by Harvey Teacher, explains that your in-text citation needs only the page number
     because the reader already knows the author's name to look for in the Works Cited (87).
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What if the source is stated in the text of my paper?
    
Information on the Web site OWL of Purdue University indicates that, when the source is given in the paper's text, both the author
     and page or paragraph number need to be included in your in-text citation (Russell par. 5).
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 Writing an MLA Paper
 Guidelines for the Paper
Paper
Use standard 8-1/2" x 11" white paper
Preferable to print single-sided pages

Margins
Top: 1 inch
Bottom: 1 inch
Sides: 1 inch
Margin indent: 1/2 inch (5 spaces)
Indented blocks of text: 1 inch in from left margin (10 spaces)
Running head (your last name and page number) 1/2 down from top margin, flush with right margin

Heading
Begin at top left of paper.    [The entire heading is double spaced.]
 
         Directions:
Line 1: Your name

Line 2: Your teacher's name

Line 3: The name and number of your class

Line 4: The date
Example:
Susie Jones

Mr. Smith

American Lit

24 Oct. 2007
Title
Begins one line down from the heading
Each important word is capitalized
Entire title is centered
Use the same font and text style as the body of the paper

Font
Use size 12 font
Choose a standard, easily readable font
       Fonts to use: Times; Georgia; Arial; Verdana
       Fonts to avoid: Party LET; Brush Script; Comic Sans

Spacing
Double space the entire paper
Do not put extra spaces between paragraphs

Page Numbers
Page numbers are added in the header
An outline can be included before the text of the paper and is numbered using itaiicized lower-case Roman numerals
The Works Cited is given the page number immediately following the body of the paper
 
Example of a Title Page
 mla_writing